All reports are included in full except where the appendices are too large to publish online. In these cases they are noted as not including appendices. Full documents including appendices can be obtained by contacting IRTA by phone or by email.
This project was sponsored by the Paul H. Johanson Fund and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. It involved working with consumers and nail salons with assistance from the California Healthy Nail Salon Collaborative. Acetone is the most widely used nail polish remover in California. Although it is reasonably low in toxicity, its high evaporation rate creates high exposure in unventilated salons and it dries out nails and makes them brittle. During the project, IRTA developed and tested two alternative nail polish removers that are blends of acetone with each of two other main ingredients. These alternatives do not evaporate readily and they leave the nails lubricated. The alternative removers are best used for regular and hybrid polish removal; they are also suitable for gel polish removal with the use of a tool or with a longer residence time.
This project was sponsored by the University of Nevada Renoâ€™s Western Sustainability and Pollution Prevention Network (WSPPN) with funding from EPA, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District and the Institute for Research and Technical Assistance. The project involved working with Riverside Unified School District for initial testing of safer alternative floor wax strippers, alternative flooring and coatings. Schools and public buildings use a type of flooring called vinyl composition tile (VCT) that requires waxing and stripping throughout its life. Many wax strippers have high VOC content and contain toxic solvents; they also contain amines which are sensitizers and can cause asthma. IRTA worked with suppliers to develop two safer floor wax strippers which contain no amines and have zero VOC content; one stripper contains no solvent. IRTA worked with coating and flooring suppliers to test three types of coatings over VCT and seven types of alternative flooring that do not require waxing or stripping. The findings indicate that using the coatings or the alternative flooring is less costly over the life of the coating or flooring than using VCT. Schools and public buildings would benefit by converting to the alternatives.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District and the San Francisco Department of the Environment (SFDE). The project involved working with several agencies in Northern and Southern California to identify, develop, test and demonstrate safer alternative methods for controlling graffiti. IRTA focused on demonstrating and analyzing two alternative blasting technologies that minimize the generation of waste; these include dry ice blasting and crushed recycled glass blasting. IRTA also tested and analyzed graffiti resistant coatings and films for protecting substrates. As part of the project, IRTA evaluated the graffiti removers used by the project participants and those listed by the SFDE. IRTA developed five different graffiti removers and conducted tests of those and the DE listed graffiti removers. The results of the alternative methods analyzed in this project should be useful for all agencies and private companies responsible for mitigating graffiti.
This project was sponsored by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. It reports the results of the first phase of a two phase project to identify, test and demonstrate safer alternatives to isopropyl alcohol (IPA) used by high technology companies for biocide control. IPA is a VOC and may be more stringently regulated by the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the future. IRTA recruited three biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies in the Bay Area to work on the project. This document identifies and analyzes the potential IPA alternatives and presents a protocol for testing them. The best alternative disinfectant from an overall health and environmental standpoint is dilute hydrogen peroxide. Another alternative that needs further investigation is acetone; it has not been determined whether the chemical exhibits disinfectant properties and future research should investigate the possibility.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). IRTA developed and demonstrated low-VOC release agent alternatives for concrete stamping, ashpalt manufactuer and application and molded parts manfacturing. In general, the best alternatives are a petroleum lubricant, recycled vegetable oil and water-based release agents. IRTA also tested cleaning alternatives for removing mold protectant from metal molds. The best alternative, in this case, was a dry ice blasting system.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA and Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). Paint manufacturers are part of the chemicals industry and there are many such manufacturers in California. This report focuses on a hypothetical manufacturer of waterborne paints. This report investigated the feasibility and cost of adopting alternatives to methylene chloride for cleaning the paint tanks between manufacturing runs. It examined approaches, processes and cleaners that could be used in place of the toxic solvent. The results indicated the lowest cost option is to use a pressure washer with plain water for the tank cleaning shortly after manufacturing the paint batch.
This project was sponsored U.S. EPA and Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). IRTA investigated nonbiocide paint alternatives to copper antifouling paints that are widely used on boat hulls. The research included testing a range of new and emerging nonbiocide paints on panels. It also involved testing methods of reducing the cost and complexity of using the nonbiocide paints. Methods that were analyzed included alternative hull stripping technologies, rolling the paint on, applying the paint over existing copper paint and cleaning the nonbiocide paints less frequently. IRTA also investigated the possibility of copper recycling for boat yards. As part of the project, IRTA arranged the painting of 10 boats of various kinds using some of the emerging paints and alternative application methods. The results indicated that several of the emerging paints are very promising and that rolling the paint on and applying the paint over copper can reduce the cost of the paint job significantly. The results also indicated that copper recycling has potential for boat yards.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA and Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). There may be more than 1,200 chemical manufacturing facilities in California and many of them use solvents to clean reactor tanks and associated equipment like process hoses. This project involved conducting tests of a range of low-VOC, low toxicity alternatives. IRTA worked with AMPAC Fine Chemicals, a progressive pharmaceutical company, to develop a test protocol and test the alternatives on three soils that would typically encountered. The results indicated that two alkaline water-based cleaners, soy and propylene carbonate performed well on some of the soils.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA and Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). There may be more than 1,200 chemical manufacturing facilities in California and many of them use solvents to clean reactor tanks and associated equipment like process hoses. This project involved analyzing the feasibility and cost of reducing the use of solvents used today and converting to safer cleaning materials for hypothetical small and large process hose cleaning operations. Six options for reducing solvent use, including on- and off-site recycling and reutilization, were examined. Four options for eliminating solvent use, including converting to water based cleaners, were examined. In general, reducing or eliminating the use of solvents results in substantial cost savings.
This project was sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Under AB 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act, CARB is responsible for developing an inventory of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in California. The project focused on estimating emissions of GHGs for 2010 and projecting emissions of GHGs for 2020 in two categories: solvents and fire protection systems. GHG emissions were estimated for three solvent applications including film cleaning, vapor degreasing and disk lubing. GHG emissions were estimated for two fire protection applications including total flooding systems and portable fire extinguishers. In both categories, GHG emissions are projected to decline over the 10 year period.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA and the Port of San Diego. Copper paints have been used on recreational boats for many years to protect against boat hull fouling which can cause hull damage and increase fuel usage. Copper from the paints exceeds water quality standards in many basins and marinas in California. This three year project involved conducting panel testing on 46 alternative non-copper biocide and non-biocide paints and testing 11 of the best performing paints on the boats. It also involved performing a cost analysis and comparison of copper and alternative paints. The results indicated that alternative biocide paints will be more costly to use over the life of the paint. Some of the alternative non-biocide paints are comparable in cost to copper paints over the life of the paint.
This project was sponsored by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. IRTA tested alternatives to trichloroethylene, the major spotting chemical used today. A total of four water-based cleaners and two soy based cleaners tested during this project and a previous project were found to be effective and lower cost options. IRTA tested two alternative methods of drying garments that would make finishing with water-based processes less labor intensive. One of these technologies, a vacuum washing/drying system using hydrogen peroxide, was found to be promising. More testing with a prototype unit should be conducted before it could be commercialized.
This project was conducted under a grant by the California Air Resources Board of the California Environmental Protection Agency under the Innovative Clean Air Technology Program (ICAT.) This project involved testing and demonstrating a portable laser device in four stripping applications where such a laser system could be used. The laser successfully stripped a variety of different paints applied to a range of substrates. The project also included performing a cost analysis of using a laser for stripping in the four applications and comparing the cost of using the device to the cost of using the most commonly used conventional stripping method. The results indicate that the laser stripping technology holds promise for some applications. (NOTE: The document contains several references to millimeters of coating thickness. This is an error and all references to millimeters should instead be references to mils. A mil is defined as 25.4 millimeters or 1/1000th of an inch.)
This project was sponsored by US EPA Region IX. It focused on developing and testing safer alternative methods for cleaning energized electrical equipment. Historically, halogenated solvents have been used for cleaning both energized and non-energized electrical equipment. These solvents contribute to ozone depletion, global warming or are carcinogens or reproductive toxins. The findings indicate that for non-energized electrical equipment cleaning, any process or non-halogenated material can be used. Alternatives that were tested included water-based cleaners, soy based cleaners and acetone cleaners. For cleaning mechanism cabinets, with a small residual current, water-based and acetone cleaners can be used as long as workers clean carefully. A carbon dioxide cleaning method called the Sno-Gun was effective for removing dust from these cabinets. Insulators and other energized electrical equipment can be cleaned with a variety of alternatives including; high-pressure deionized water, corn cob or limestone blasting and carbon dioxide pellet blasting. The alternatives that were identified, developed and demonstrated during this project are much safer from a health and environmental standpoint than the halogenated solvents.
This project was sponsored by Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). There may be as many as 8,000 autobody shops in California and nearly all are small businesses. IRTA recruited seven autobody facilities to work on pollution prevention measures during the project and used information on two additional shops from earlier projects. The project focused in four areas:
- demonstrating low-VOC, low toxicity alternative cleanup materials;
- developing and demonstrating low-voc, low toxicity alternative thinners;
- evaluating emerging alternative waterborne base coats; and
- testing and evaluating an alternative sanding technology
The results of the project demonstrate that low-VOC, low toxicity alternative cleanup materials and thinners based on acetone are effective. The results also highlight the successful conversion to waterborne base coats for two of the participating facilities. The alternative sanding technology that minimizes dust generation was tested in three facilities and two of the facilities adopted the technology.
This project was sponsored by the California Air Resources Board under a program established by Assembly Bill 998. The project featured five textile cleaning facilities that had converted to or adopted water-based or carbon dioxide alternatives to perchloroethylene (PERC). The document includes cost analysis for three of the facilities that have been using the alternative technologies for more than one year. IRTA held showcase events at four of the five participating facilities during the project and arranged and held an EXPO at Southern California Edison's CTAC facility. IRTA developed a fact sheet on safer alternative spotting chemicals based on research performed in an earlier project sponsored by Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control and EPA.
This project was sponsored by U.S. EPA Region 9. Tert-Butyl Acetate (TBAC) has been designated as exempt from VOC regulations by EPA. It forms a metabolite called tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) that is a carcinogen. This document describes and analyzes safer alternatives to TBAC in cleaning and thinning applications. Safer alternatives include acetone and acetone blends, water-based cleaners and soy based cleaners. The results indicate that there is no reason to exempt TBAC from VOC regulations in California.
This project was sponsored by Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control. It involved working with wood furniture refinishers, autobody shops, architectural contractors and various manufacturers of metal parts. Low-VOC safer alternatives were tested for cleaning up coating application equipment like spray guns, brushes and rollers and for thinning the coatings. Alternatives that performed well and were cost-effective included acetone, water-based cleaners and soy based cleaners.
>This project was sponsored by Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control and US EPA. This project involved working with seven textile cleaning facilities that have adopted alternatives to PERC in dry cleaning. IRTA identified and developed safer spotting agents. Spotting agents that are used currently include trichloroethylene (TCE) and PERC. These chemicals are carcinogens and TCE is a VOC. The safer alternatives include water-based cleaners, soy based cleaners and acetone based cleaners. The cost analysis indicates that the alternatives are less costly than the spotting agents used today.
This project was sponsored by Cal/EPA's Department of Toxic Substances Control. The project involved working with 10 auto repair facilities in the southern California area to assist them in converting away from toxic and high VOC aerosol cleaners for at least a three month period. Facilities decided to convert to various alternatives including spray bottles using water-based cleaners instead of aerosols, water-based brake cleaning systems in place of aerosols and alternative water-based, vegetable based and acetone low-VOC aerosols developed by IRTA. The results demonstrated that auto repair shops can convert to low-VOC, low toxicity alternatives.
This project was sponsored by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). It involved working with eight facilities to test low-VOC alternatives to vanishing oils and high VOC rust inhibitors. The document combines the results of the testing during the SCAQMD project and an earlier project sponsored by EPA (see 2004 EPA project below). The EPA project involved working with five facilities to identify, test and demonstrate alternative low-VOC lubricants. The results of the two projects indicate that alternative water-based and vegetable based products are viable and cost effective. The SCAQMD is considering developing a regulation on the industry.
This project was sponsored by HESIS and U.S. EPA. The project involved evaluating and demonstrating safer alternatives for five solvents that are known or likely to be toxic. These include decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF), n-propyl bromide (NPB), 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (DCE) and N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). In each case, IRTA focused on the applications where the solvent is used widely or was likely to expose consumers, workers or community members.
TimesNewRoman">DTSC contracted with IRTA to identify, test, develop and demonstrate alternative non-METH stripping formulations in consumer product applications. The aim of the project was to find safer alternative non-METH strippers that minimized the increase in VOC emissions.
This project involved testing alternative non-METH stripping formulations in four sectors including:
- large furniture stripping companies that use equipment to apply stripper;
- all furniture stripping companies that apply stripper by hand;
- contract stripping companies that strip on-site and apply stripper by hand; and
- consumer stripping where consumers apply the stripper by hand.